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    Study offers new theoretical approach to describing non-equilibrium phase transi
    Posted on Friday, April 28, 2017 @ 19:33:17 EDT by vlad

    Study offers new theoretical approach to describing non-equilibrium phase transitions. Image: Credit: Vinokur/Galda/Argonne National Laboratory.
    Imaginary numbers are a solution to a very real problem in a study published today in Scientific Reports.

    Two physicists at the U.S. Department of Energy's Argonne National Laboratory offered a way to mathematically describe a particular physics phenomenon called a phase transition in a system out of equilibrium. Such phenomena are central in physics, and understanding how they occur has been a long-held and vexing goal; their behavior and related effects are key to unlocking possibilities for new electronics and other next-generation technologies.


    In physics, "equilibrium" refers to a state when an object is not in motion and has no energy flowing through it. As you might expect, most of our lives take place outside this state: we are constantly moving and causing other things to move...

    Full article: https://phys.org/news/2017-04-theoretical-approach-non-equilibrium-phase-transitions.html

    From Dr. Peter Gluck' LENR blog Ego Out: Axil's Info

    A new and elegant take on Quantum Mechanics has arrived on the scene just in time to help explain how LENR works. With this new tool, dynamic systems are understood to include phase transitions at the extreme limits of their solution sets.

     Dynamic operators that have been only discovered a few years ago are now widely used in quantum optics which is at the heart of the LENR reaction.

     Phase transitions are hot in physics now central to the understanding of the Higgs field, optics with changing indices of refraction, and superconductivity all demonstrate phase transitions and the famous Mexican hat upside down potential that only using the complex number set can properly explain.

    In this figure, think of the blue optical resonators as the Surface Plasmon Polariton (SPP) with a whispering gallery wave structure. The red toroids are the protons and neutrons in the nucleus.

    In this experimental setup explained by the figure, coupled optical resonators (paired red and blue toroids on little pedestals) are PT symmetry systems. When they are tuned through a “phase transition” light, instead of moving through them in both directions, can only travel one way.

    In LENR terms when a phase transition occurs is the SPP optical resonators, and when a proton decays, the energy of that decay in the form of a Gamma ray can only be absorbed by the SPP. Light energy cannot move from the SPP into the proton.
    We learn from this model that quantum theories need not obey the conventional mathematical condition of Hermiticity so long as they obey the physical geometric condition of space-time-reflection symmetry (PT symmetry).

    PT symmetry challenges a standard convention in physics—the widely held belief that a quantum Hamiltonian must be Hermitian. And, because PT symmetry is a weaker condition than Hermiticity, there are infinitely many Hamiltonians that are PT symmetric but non-Hermitian; we can now study new kinds of quantum theories that would have been rejected in the past as being unphysical. Moreover, PT-symmetric systems exhibit a feature that Hermitian systems cannot; as indicated in the energy levels become complex when energy from outside the system changes in the system.

    The transition from real to complex energies is a key feature of PT-symmetric systems and it is called the PT phase transition. At this transition the system goes from a state of physical equilibrium (called a state of unbroken PT symmetry) to nonequilibrium (broken PT symmetry).

    LENR occurs when PT symmetry is broken in an optical micro cavity.

     
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    "Study offers new theoretical approach to describing non-equilibrium phase transi" | Login/Create an Account | 1 comment | Search Discussion
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    Re: Study offers new theoretical approach to describing non-equilibrium phase transi (Score: 1)
    by vlad on Friday, April 28, 2017 @ 19:36:27 EDT
    (User Info | Send a Message) http://www.zpenergy.com
    Axil's comment on EgoOut [egooutpeters.blogspot.ca]: A nanoplasmonic based experiment suggested as a probe of the nature of the LENR reaction involving the fission of thorium by muons as follows:

    This expanded experiment is based on this one that has already been performed as follows:

    Initiation of nuclear reactions under laser irradiation of Au nanoparticles in the presence of Thorium aqua-ions A.V. Simakin and G.A. Shafeev

    https://arxiv.org/ftp/arxiv/papers/0906/0906.4268.pdf

    “The resulting average size of Au NPs as determined by Transmission Electron Microscopy lies between 10 and 20 nm.”

    The addition is to configure this experiment with two double concentric glass chambers with pure water and gold nanoparticles in the inner chamber and one with a thorium salt in solution in water filling the outer chamber but without any nanoparticles inside of it.

    First, test the two concentric chambers without nanoparticles added to the inner chamber. Expect to see no transmutation in either the inner or the outer chamber.

    Next, test the two concentric chambers with nanoparticles added to the inner chamber. Expect to see transmutation results involving thorium in the outer chamber as was seen in the referenced experiment done by A.V. Simakin and G.A. Shafeev.

    This will show that interaction between light and nanoparticles produce the LENR reaction and that the reaction is carried out at a distance by subatomic particles that can penetrate a glass wall.

    Variations on the wall material: aluminum, iron, stainless steel, lead etc can be carried out if the laser beam enters the inner chamber from an open top of the inner chamber.

    Next, a high voltage spark discharge can replace the laser light that is fired just above the top of the water level on the inner chamber. As a probe of the LENR reaction with gold nanoparticles present, expect to see transmutation results involving thorium in the outer chamber.

    No LENR reactions will be produced without the presence of gold nanoparticles in the inner chamber.



     

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