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    The fundamental building blocks of the universe
    Posted on Thursday, December 10, 2020 @ 16:02:40 GMT by vlad

    Via The Conversation: Fragments of energy – not waves or particles – may be the fundamental building blocks of the universe by Larry M. Silverberg (Professor of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, North Carolina State University)

    Matter is what makes up the universe, but what makes up matter? This question has long been tricky for those who think about it – especially for the physicists. Reflecting recent trends in physics, my colleague Jeffrey Eischen and I have described an updated way to think about matter. We propose that matter is not made of particles or waves, as was long thought, but – more fundamentally – that matter is made of fragments of energy...

    ...Using newer mathematical tools, my colleague and I have demonstrated a new theory that may accurately describe the universe. Instead of basing the theory on the warping of space and time, we considered that there could be a building block that is more fundamental than the particle and the wave. Scientists understand that particles and waves are existential opposites: A particle is a source of matter that exists at a single point, and waves exist everywhere except at the points that create them. My colleague and I thought it made logical sense for there to be an underlying connection between them.

    Flow and fragments of energy

    Our theory begins with a new fundamental idea – that energy always “flows” through regions of space and time.

    Think of energy as made up of lines that fill up a region of space and time, flowing into and out of that region, never beginning, never ending and never crossing one another.

    Working from the idea of a universe of flowing energy lines, we looked for a single building block for the flowing energy. If we could find and define such a thing, we hoped we could use it to accurately make predictions about the universe at the largest and tiniest scales.

    There were many building blocks to choose from mathematically, but we sought one that had the features of both the particle and wave – concentrated like the particle but also spread out over space and time like the wave. The answer was a building block that looks like a concentration of energy – kind of like a star – having energy that is highest at the center and that gets smaller farther away from the center.

    Much to our surprise, we discovered that there were only a limited number of ways to describe a concentration of energy that flows. Of those, we found just one that works in accordance with our mathematical definition of flow. We named it a fragment of energy. For the math and physics aficionados, it is defined as A = -⍺/r where ⍺ is intensity and r is the distance function.

    Using the fragment of energy as a building block of matter, we then constructed the math necessary to solve physics problems. The final step was to test it out.

    Back to Einstein, adding universality


    Full article: https://theconversation.com/fragments-of-energy-not-waves-or-particles-may-be-the-fundamental-building-blocks-of-the-universe



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    "The fundamental building blocks of the universe" | Login/Create an Account | 1 comment | Search Discussion
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    Re: The fundamental building blocks of the universe (Score: 1)
    by solaris on Saturday, February 06, 2021 @ 17:09:17 GMT
    (User Info | Send a Message)
    I found these article comments very interesting:

    Lama Tantrapa writes:

    The theory that energy comprises the entire universe is old as the hills. The ancient Chinese art of Qigong is based on the same idea that Qi is the true nature of everything and everyone. It applies the principles of energy awareness to personal development and healing, but it is important to recognize that everything is energy on the macro scale. I am currently studying the ways of understanding how the macro and micro scales are connected. Would love to discuss your theory.

    Michael Krugman writes:

    I’ve always assumed this was the case…

    From my point of view, every “thing” in the current universe, including spacetime, owes its origins to the Big Bang, when there was ONLY energy and nothing else, not even space or time. The Big Bang was simply a phase change (like water to ice) as kinetic energy began to subside through its own unimaginably concentrated interaction, finally yielding the first primordial “crystals” or “things,” which, for the moment, we can call strings. Of course, the new, first presence of these “things” demanded differentiation; in other words, you can’t have a “thing,” such as a string, without being able to distinguish it materially from others, thereby yielding SPACE, in which “things” can be distinguished. These “things” interact through cause and effect, necessitating TIME.

    So, the phase change from pure energy to “things” yielded SPACETIME.

    Since every “thing” demanded its own immediately surrounding domain of SPACETIME, space underwent inflationary expansion and commensurate reduction in kinetic energy, i.e., cooling, yielding exponentially more phase changes, i.e., “things.” (Think of this as an “unfolding” of spacetime around each emerging “material” constituent, albeit at the Plank scale.)  This crystallization of pure energy into things and spacetime is what we call The Big Bang. This rapid sequence of phase changes in the ever expanding and continuously cooling domain of spacetime yielded other successive things, including quarks, protons, electrons, and so forth, right up the chain of subatomic, atomic, elemental, and ultimately chemical and biological formation.

    This process continues today and is characterized by the bubbling in and out of existence of so-called virtual particles, each of which unfolds its own highly localized domain of spacetime. This ongoing, ever-present, vast, and constant unfolding of spacetime at the Planck scale throughout the universe is what we call Dark Energy, expanding spacetime at exponentially greater speed as virtual particles boil in and out of existence. Some of the fundamental constituents of this process have mass-like properties, yielding Dark Matter.

    With that, I’ll leave the mathematics as an exercise for the reader. :-)



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