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Ground States and the Zero-Point Field
Posted on Friday, August 04, 2017 @ 21:16:53 GMT by vlad

Science From EarthTech International - Institute for Advanced Studies at Austin: Introduction

The electromagnetic zero-point field (ZPF), a sea of background electromagnetic energy that fills the vacuum, is often regarded merely as a curious outcome of the quantum mechanical requirement that the lowest allowable energy level in a harmonic oscillator mode is not zero but ħw /2, where w is the characteristic frequency of the oscillator. However, there is a growing body of evidence that the ZPF may play a causal role in some important fundamental processes. For example, it has been demonstrated[1] experimentally that the familiar spontaneous emission process in atoms can be regarded as stimulated emission by ZPF radiation. Of particular pertinence to this experiment, we have shown[2] that a dynamic equilibrium with the ZPF can explain the electronic ground state of the hydrogen atom. Unfortunately, this particular hypothesis has resisted our efforts to design a practical experimental test. However, there is a closely related hypothesis that is much easier to test.


 It has been shown[3] that a charged harmonic oscillator immersed in the zero-point field (ZPF) will reach dynamic equilibrium with the ZPF when the oscillator energy is equal to ħw /2, where w is the oscillator frequency. Diatomic molecules have vibrational modes that closely approximate those of a harmonic oscillator at low energy levels. The ground state energy of such molecules is also given by ħw /2, where w is the molecular vibration frequency. We hypothesize that these molecular ground states are not fixed and immutable, as suggested by quantum theory, but are a result of dynamic equilibrium with the ZPF. We tested this hypothesis by measuring the vibrational ground state energy of H2 molecules placed into a Casimir cavity that suppresses the ZPF frequencies at the corresponding molecular vibration frequency (1.32 X 1014 Hz, 2.2 micron wavelength).
Experimental Strategy

We measured the vibrational ground state energy of H2 molecules indirectly by measuring the molecular dissociation energy. If the ground state energy were reduced, the dissociation energy would necessarily increase correspondingly.

The dissociation energy of H2 has been accurately measured[4] by observing the location of the absorption edge that occurs at about 84.5 nm (14.7 eV – EUV). This edge corresponds to photodissociation of the molecule into one ground state H atom and one H atom in the 1st excited electronic state (+10.2 eV). The difference, about 4.5 eV, is the dissociation energy...

Full article: http://earthtech.org/ground-states-and-the-zero-point-field/



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Open System Physics: Demystifying "Free" Energy (Score: 1)
by yru4 on Friday, August 04, 2017 @ 22:34:20 GMT
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Good background by John Maguire: Discussions surrounding the notion of "free" energy almost always devolve into polemics when one of the participants derides such an idea as pseudoscience and "utter nonsense" because obviously you cannot violate the vaunted laws of thermodynamics (aka conservation of energy and law of entropy). I will argue here that this point of view is outdated and emblematic of a truncated point of view. What skeptics are failing to grasp is that the first and second laws of thermodynamics only hold in Closed Systems [en.wikipedia.org].

Skeptics often downplay problems associated with models that have become, in many ways, antiquated. For example the Big Bang demands a violation of conservation laws a priori. Just because its inherent complications are explained away by Heisenberg's Uncertainty Principle does not make its energetic origins any less mysterious. Also, 70% of energy in the Universe appears "Dark" and seems to be increasing. Theoretically speaking we know conservation laws are statistical in nature, and there is some speculation that symmetry laws in general are merely special cases (albeit ubiquitous) that break down on the cosmological scale. In that sense the universe may be asymmetrical and prone to conservation violations by nature.

One of the clearest experimental indicators that there still remains a treasure trove of new physics left to be unveiled is known as Low Energy Nuclear Reactions. LENR (aka Cold Fusion) is perpetually ignored and/or dismissed, despite having been proven beyond a doubt experimentally --- in  countless cases worldwide [lenr-canr.org]since 1989 --- and being underwritten by a diverse array of theoretical explanations (for example MIT's Peter Hagelstein [lenr-canr.org]; Los Alamos' Edmund Storms; Nobel Laureate Julian Schwinger; Retired MIT-Nanotechnologist Ken Shoulders [oriharu.net]). What is most significant is that CF-LENR appears to violate majority opinion in regards to how energy conservation laws might work. It would appear from countless tests that both electrolytic cells and gas-driven reactors output significantly more energy than is put in to them ( Rossi's E-Cat [www.forbes.com]; Defkalion Hyperion; Brillouin Boiler; JET Energy NANOR).

Even though the standard model has taught us that nucleons possess a huge amount of stored energy, effectively liberating that energy has always been the tricky part. Most scientists believe that such a feat can only be achieved in a high temperature, high pressure system that mimics the Sun. Achieving nuclear-type reactions that produce nuclear-level excess heat within such a relatively low-temperature chemical environment simply goes against standard atomic theory -- but the experimental results appear undeniable.


More: http://www.blue-science.org/articles/2013/06/07/open-system-physics-demystifying-free-energy/ [www.blue-science.org]


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