Quark Force, Pioneer Anomaly, Flat Stellar Rotation Curves - all explained
Date: Sunday, May 13, 2007 @ 20:22:48 GMT
Dr. Jack Sarfatti writes: Quark Force, Pioneer Anomaly, Flat Stellar Rotation Curves - all explained one simple ZPE idea
The Skeptics like to debunk zero point energy as "psychoceramics" (Visser's "Lorentzian Wormholes") well let's see who has the last laugh now? ;-)
I forgot to mention that this same simple idea also explains the flat stellar rotation curves in the galactic halos. Obviously, if the attractive force is constant, like for the quarks, the orbiting speeds of the stars will not depend upon their distance from the center of the galaxy.
Three at a blow
1. Quark Force
2. NASA Pioneer Anomaly
3. Flat stellar rotation curves in dark matter galactic halo.
Zero Point Energy Origin of the Strong Quark Chromodynamic Force
First a short review of potential theory.
I. If the force f decreases
with distance and the potential energy U is (positive) negative, then the
force is (repulsive) attractive.
U = +e^2/r >
f = -dU/dr = +e^2/r^2 points toward r -> infinity, i.e.
note that (d/dr)(1/r) = - 1/r^2
the two - signs
II. If the force increases with distance and the potential energy
U is (positive) negative, then the force is (attractive)
Example II.1 Λzpf is the vacuum zero point space curvature,
assumed constant here.
Zero point energy, as mentioned by Andrei
Sakharov in 1967, directly induces gravity because of the equivalence
principle of Albert Einstein.
In the weak field low speed limit of
general relativity, the universal zero point energy induced gravity
potential energy per unit test particle is
V ~ -c^2Λzpf
r < R
for a uniform sphere of isotropic zero point energy
of radius R centered at r = 0, with vanishing Λzpf for r > R. This is
same as drilling a straight hole all the way through the center of a
sphere of constant mass density to the other side and dropping a test
particle down the hole. This is a harmonic oscillator because the mass
beyond the momentary position of the test particle makes no contribution to
the force on the test particle.
Baron Munchausen on the geodesic test
particle feels weightless of course, but from the POV of the non-inertial
observer fixed to the non-geodesic surface of the sphere by non-gravity
electrical and quantum forces, it's AS IF there is a force per unit test
mass on the test particle
g = - dV/dr = +2c^2Λzpfr
When Λzpf > 0 this is repulsive.
This same formal result carries over into
cosmology where r is replaced by the scale factor a(t) stretching space
itself and what happens is that there is an extra acceleration of a(t)
opposing the ordinary matter that tends to decelerate the stretching of
the rubbery fabric of space itself, i.e. the 3Dim spacelike piece of the
The cosmological equations are here
Therefore, in these sign conventions, Λzpf
> 0 is the repelling dark energy and Λzpf < 0 is the attracting dark
Repelling dark energy is isotropic w = -1 positive zero point
energy density with equal but opposite negative pressure.
dark matter is isotropic w = -1 negative zero point energy density with
equal but opposite positive pressure.
Adding torsion fields converts
Einstein's cosmological constant Λzpf into a locally variable
"quintessent" field. You get torsion with curvature by locally gauging the
entire 10-parameter Poincare group of globally rigid special
Now what happens between quarks inside the hadronic "bag"?
What we have is a bag of dark matter where the quintessent field
Λzpf(quarks) = - 1/ar
Therefore, the constant attractive force
per unit mass between the quarks is
g = -c^2/a ~ string
for strong short-range (Abdus Salam) ZPF induced
We see exactly the same thing on the larger scale of the NASA
Pioneer Anomaly where
g = -cH ~ 1 nanometer/sec^2
c^2/Hubble radius ~ 10^21/10^28 ~ 10^-7 cm/sec^2
i.e. a hollow sphere of
dark matter centered at Sun beginning at
about orbit of Saturn.
Target audience: theoretical physicists