EEMF Research
Date: Wednesday, November 14, 2001 @ 23:06:00 GMT
Topic: Manufacturers

This information comes from Hal Fox, president of the Emerging Energy Marketing Firm, Inc. (EEMF) which has aquired all the High-Density Charge Cluster (HDCC) patents issued so far.


High-density electron charge clusters (HDCC) can be produced by
using the so-called valve metals [1]. These metals, when used as
electrodes in aqueous solutions create a highly-resistive oxide
layer. Properly used, the oxide layer provides for a thin layer
wherein the voltage gradient is very high. The end result, with
sufficient voltage applied, is the creation of HDCC. However,
the clusters often destroy a small spot of the oxide layer.
Therefore, a form of alternating current is used so that the
oxide layer is re-established on the positive cycle of the
applied alternating current.

The valve metals that we have used in our experiments are
aluminum and zirconium. Some experiments can be done using 110
or 220 volts input to a Variac and the output of the Variac
attached to the electrodes. To obtain charge clusters the
voltage across a pair of electrodes has to be a minimum of about
40 volts. Higher voltages can provide more intense charge
cluster activity. Specially designed power supplies provide a
better operation.

The power supply needs to have sufficient size so that the
current being drive through the solution creates a sufficient
voltage drop across the oxide layer to initiate the HDCC
production. Otherwise, one is just heating up the solution and
would not expect to obtain any special results.

The surface area of the electrodes within the solution is a
strong function of HDCC production. The larger the surface area,
the more current that is required to provide a sufficiently high
voltage gradient across the oxide layer to produce the charge
clusters. The conductivity of the solution is also an important
parameter. We have performed experiments ranging from a dilute
solution of thorium to saturated salt solutions. It is more
difficult to create HDCC in saturated salt solutions.

Several patents have issued on various applications of HDCC
technology [2]. All HDCC patents that have issued have been
assigned to Emerging Energy Marketing Firm, Inc. (EEMF).
Licensing standards for this new technology is being developed.
For further information you may contact Hal Fox, Pres. EEMF.
email address:


[1] Atul Bhadkamkar & Hal Fox, "Electron Charge Cluster Sparking
in Aqueous Solutions", J. of New Energy, Winter 1997, vol 1, no
4, pp 62-67, 2 figs 28 refs.

[2] The following U.S. Patents are involved in HDCC: 5,018,180
(1991) - 5,054,046 (1991) - 5,054,047 (1991) - 5,123,039 (1992)
and 5,148,461 (1992). Other patents are pending.

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