To: Dr. Marcel Urban, Dr. François Couchot, Dr. Xavier Sarazin, Dr. Arache Djannati-Atai, authors of the paper The quantum vacuum as the origin of the speed of light, published by The European Physical Journal D.
In your paper you propose a structure for the space, formed by
charged fermion and anti fermion. However, as they have opposite
charges, they have attraction, and therefore the fermion and the anti
fermion would have to meet together, and annihilate one each other, as
happens when a particle and its antiparticle meet together.
In order to avoid this undesirable feature of the hypothesis of
the structure of the space formed by particle and antiparticle, there is
need to consider an additional repulsive particle, which involves the
fermions and the anti fermions, and so it avoids they meet together.
This is shown in the Figure 1 ahead:
Let us assume that the photon is composed by a particle Q(+) and its
antiparticle Q(-), moving with helical trajectory.
This model of photon gives both the wave and corpuscular properties of
the light. It also can be shown that from such model for the photon
generates the Maxwell’s Equations.
The particle Q(+) is composed by a number “k” of those particles e(+)
shown in the Figure 1, and the antiparticle Q(-) is formed by the same
number “k” of antiparticles e(-).
As there is repulsion between the particles e(+), in order to
avoid the repulsion within the particle Q(+) the particles e(+) are
involved by a field of repulsive particles G. The same happens in the
antiparticle Q(-), as shown in the Figure 2.
The Figure 3 shows the structure of the photon, where the particle
Q(+) and antiparticle Q(-) are moving with helical trajectory.
The photon has a rectilinear displacement along the direction of the
line LHC (the center of its helical trajectory).
The particle Q(+) moves with circular motion in clockwise
direction about the line LHC , while Q(-) moves in counter-clockwise
There is attraction between the particle Q(+) and the antiparticle Q(-),
but they are immersed in an ocean of repulsive particles “G”, which
avoids they met together and to annihilate one each other.
An interesting experiment was made by Dr. Gabriela B. Lemos:
'Quantum imaging with undetected photons
Let us see what happens when the particle Q(+) and the antiparticle Q(-)
are constrained to be separated, exiting their partnership in the
structure of the photon, and two new twin photons A and B are created,
as happens in the Gabriela’s experiment.
In the instant when Q(+) and Q(-) are separated, the particle
Q(+) induces the creation of a new antiparticle Q(-), by extracting
particles q(+) from the structure of the space. So, a new photon
[Q(+),Q(-)] is formed. In that same time, the antiparticle Q(-) induces
the creation of a new particle Q(+), and another new photon [Q(+),Q(-)]
is formed. The two new photons are identical. They are twins photons.
But note that the twins photons A and B are bound by a string formed by
attractive particles “g”, as shown in the Figure 5, because in the
instant of the formation of the two newborn A and B photons there was
entanglement between Q1 & Q2 and Q3 & Q4 , due to the string
formed by attractive particles “g”.
From Figure 5 we realize that the total angular moment zero of Q1-Q2 is
linked by the Entanglement 1, while the total angular moment zero of
Q3-Q4 is linked by the Entanglement 2.
So, when the photon A hits a surface and is annihilated, in order
to keep the zero angular moment of the Entanglement 1 and also of the
Entanglement 2, the photon B must be also annihilated, and this explains
the result obtained by Gabriela Lemos in her experiment.
As happens in the case of the Rossi-Effect, when we interpret the
Gabriela’s experiment by considering the empty space of the Einstein’s
Relativity, her experiment violates the energy-mass conservation,
because the original photon used by Gabriela had an energy E1=(Q1+Q2).c²
, while the energy of the two twin photons A and B is E2=(Q1+Q2).c² +
However, the total energy-mass in her experiment is not violated,
because the energy E=(Q3+Q4).c² is extracted from the space, and
therefore the energy of the space becomes negative, E=-(Q3+Q4).c² ,
during the time along which the photons A and B are not annihilated.
In essence, the apparent violation of the energy-mass conservation in
Gabriela’s experiment (when we consider Einstein’s empty space) is
similar to the energy-mass violation in the experiment where flashes of
light were created from the space:
Something from Nothing? A Vacuum Can Yield Flashes of Light