**DMB** writes: Passive linear devices,
like resistors, inductors and capacitors, are conservative, both in modeling
and operation. Non-linear devices, like diodes, can, if engineered in the
proper context, produce a net power energy gain in a circuit.

We have one such
circuit engineered which clearly produces a net power gain of (minimum 235%).
The input power had large spikes, so we added a pi-filter, and that seemed to
clean things up in a second modeling. You are welcome to modify and work with
your own copies of the publicly available circuits on CircuitLab, or to rebuild
them in PSpice. Extensive discussion and rationale for their operation is
found, along with the circuits themselves, at the following links:

Over-unity "Proto-Circuit" - Inductor Resistances
Included - CircuitLab

Over-unity "Proto-Circuit" with Input Power
Smoothing Added - CircuitLab

Cheers.

DMB

Also please see, and
perhaps help with, the following circuit:

Over-unity "Proto-Circuit" with more realistic
Capacitor sizes and different Power Compensation - CircuitLab

Thanks,

DMB

………..

Working on automated power averaging for the three circuits listed earlier.
Here's what I have:

Over-unity "Proto-Circuit" with Inductor
Resistances, and Power Averaging - CircuitLab

Over-unity Circuit - with Power Filtration, realistic
Capacitors, and Power Averaging - CircuitLab

Over-unity Circuit with Filtration, Compensation, and Power
Averaging - CircuitLab

The last one may not be over-unity, as it has a
good deal more inductor resistance, and is structured differently. I would
appreciate any comments on flaws in my power averaging schema….

……………..

**Proof of Concept
Over-Unity Circuit easily analyzable in CircuitLab Simulator**

In order to avoid
distraction from the primary value as a Proof of Concept circuit, we have taken
down all circuits but the first listed; it has power spikes, but those can be
handled in time, and perhaps by others. Thanks….

**Measure twice, cut
once...**

I made an error, and now
checking a second time it seems the over-unity percentage was only around 130%.
Still significant as Proof of Concept….

**Voyage of Discovery,
not Invention...**

Over-unity "Proto-Circuit"
- Inductor Resistances Included - CircuitLab [www.zpenergy.com]

We recently
simplified this circuit when we found one of the "legs" in the
original was carrying no current at all under simulation. We also were playing
around with the original so much after submitting our original news story that
it was hard to "draw a bead" on where we were, or where we were
headed.

The end result of our
journeys is incredibly simple, but still simulates as over-unity. So simple in
fact, that our work hardly qualifies as invention, and is more in the category
of discovery... discovery of a hidden over-unity property of the simplest of
loaded series RLC resonant tank circuits.

Even with Inductor
Resistance included, this over-unity proto-circuit (see above link), at least
as it simulates in CircuitLab, boasts a substantial (near 150%) Coefficient of
Performance (COP). COP may normalized some if standardized components with
approximate, rounded-off values are used. However, if optimal performance is
still desired, variable inductors may be included such that resonance may be
"tuned" to the ideal. The best we had with "perfect"
resonance, and inductor resistances included, was around 150% COP, using
conservative approximations. If in doubt, you are welcome to simulate the
circuit yourself, and perform the relatively easy "eyeball"
integration of the power-in (Pin) curve to calculate your own figure for COP.

The integration
consists primarily of summing the area of triangle-shaped "spikes"
which approximate the power curve, separated by large zero areas along the time
axis, then dividing by the period of the 60Hz root waveform.

Again, as is, the
power input includes momentary power spikes. Conditioning stages need to be
added to the input, without affecting over-unity performance.

This work-in-progress
is the ideal "proto-circuit" of circuits based on it that use more
comprehensive (and realistic) models for inductors, capacitors and diodes, and
voltage sources, as well as input power conditioning stages.

Linear components are
"conservative," and as has been thought, can't seem to generate power
of themselves, but non-linear components, however, are potentially
"non-conservative," and if engineered in the proper context, can
produce a net power gain in the output.

This circuit is based
on the nonlinearity of the diode (D) creating "phantom" voltage or
current sources comprised of Fourier series harmonics of a half-wave rectified
sine-wave voltage. LC filtering seems to partially block the fundamental
harmonic currents from fully manifesting in the load. Further "full"
resonance of a different (double) frequency paves the way for 2nd harmonic
currents originating in diode (D) to reach the load near completely unimpeded.

This
"proto-circuit" is a Proof of Concept circuit to justify more
research and, potentially, real world implementation. Home-scale units in the
10kW range could be developed for inverter and grid inter-tie connection, and
the concept could also likely be scaled-up for large-scale generation on the
order of Megawatts.