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    Extraction of Zero-Point Energy from the Vacuum
    Posted on Tuesday, July 30, 2019 @ 16:53:43 MST by vlad

    Science Extraction of Zero-Point Energy from the Vacuum: Assessment of Stochastic Electrodynamics-Based Approach as Compared to Other Methods  (Published: 23 May 2019) by Garret Moddel [OrcID] and Olga Dmitriyeva
    Department of Electrical, Computer, and Energy Engineering, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309-0425, USA

    Abstract: In research articles and patents several methods have been proposed for the extraction of zero-point energy from the vacuum. None of the proposals have been reliably demonstrated, yet they remain largely unchallenged. In this paper the underlying thermodynamics principles of equilibrium, detailed balance, and conservation laws are presented for zero-point energy extraction.


    The proposed methods are separated into three classes: nonlinear processing of the zero-point field, mechanical extraction using Casimir cavities, and the pumping of atoms through Casimir cavities.

    The first two approaches are shown to violate thermodynamics principles, and therefore appear not to be feasible, no matter how innovative their execution. The third approach, based upon stochastic electrodynamics, does not appear to violate these principles, but may face other obstacles. Initial experimental results are tantalizing but, given the lower than expected power output, inconclusive.

    Full text here: Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute. (MDPI) - Atoms Journal: https://doi.org/10.3390/atoms7020051

    (available in our Downloads/ZPE section as well)

     
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    "Extraction of Zero-Point Energy from the Vacuum" | Login/Create an Account | 1 comment | Search Discussion
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    Re: Extraction of Zero-Point Energy from the Vacuum (Score: 1)
    by solaris on Wednesday, July 31, 2019 @ 16:46:42 MST
    (User Info | Send a Message)
    Excellent paper...highly recommended to everybody interested in this subject!

    Here are the Conclusions:

    "The tremendous energy density in the zero-point field (ZPF) makes it tempting to attempt tapping it for power. Furthermore, the fact that these vacuum fluctuations may be distinguished from thermal fluctuations and are not under the usual thermal equilibrium make it tempting to try to skirt second law of thermodynamics constraints. However, the ZPF is in a state of true equilibrium, and the constraints that apply to equilibrium systems apply to it. In particular, any attempt to use nonlinear processes, such as with a diode, cannot harvest energy from a system in equilibrium. Detailed balance arguments apply.

    The force exhibited between opposing plates of a Casimir cavity have led to attempts to make use of the potential energy to obtain power. This cannot succeed because the Casimir force is conservative. In any attempt to obtain power by cycling Casimir cavity spacing the energy gained in one part of the cycle must be paid back in another.

    Thermal fluctuations, usually thought of as an expression of Planck’s law, and ZPE vacuum fluctuations, usually associated with the ground state of a quantum system, are most often treated if they were separate forms of energy. However, the zero-point energy (ZPE) density given in Equation (1) may be re-expressed in the form [56]: [Equation (5)]

    The fact that these two seemingly separate concepts can be merged into a single formalism suggests that thermal and ZPE fluctuations are connected fundamentally. More rigorously, Planck’s law can be seen as a consequence of ZPE [57], and is “inherited” from it [58]. In more than a century of theory and experimentation we have not been able to extract usable energy from thermal fluctuations, and it might seem that we are destined to find ourselves in a similar situation with attempts to extract usable energy from ZPE.

    There is, however, a distinction that can be drawn between the two cases, which has to do with the nature of the ZPE equilibrium state. The equilibrium ZPE energy density is a function of the local geometry. Two thermal reservoirs at different temperatures that are in contact with each other cannot be in equilibrium; heat will flow from one to the other. Two ZPE reservoirs having different energy densities that are in contact with each other can, however, be in equilibrium. For example, a Casimir cavity can be in direct contact (open at its edges) with the free space surrounding it such that the ZPE density inside and outside the cavity are different without any net flow of energy between the two regions. Furthermore, extracting ZPE from the vacuum does not violate the second law of thermodynamics [12].

    Our apparent lack of clear success in extracting energy from the vacuum thus far leads to two possible conclusions. Either fundamental constraints beyond what have been discussed here and the nature of ZPE preclude extraction, or it is feasible and we just need to find a suitable technology."




     

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    Keywords: ZPE, ZPF, Zero Point Energy, Zero Point Fluctuations, ZPEnergy, New Energy Technology, Small Scale Implementation, Energy Storage Technology, Space-Energy, Space Energy, Natural Potential, Investors, Investing, Vacuum Energy, Electromagnetic, Over Unity, Overunity, Over-Unity, Free Energy, Free-Energy, Ether, Aether, Cold Fusion, Cold-Fusion, Fuel Cell, Quantum Mechanics, Van der Waals, Casimir, Advanced Physics, Vibrations, Advanced Energy Conversion, Rotational Magnetics, Vortex Mechanics, Rotational Electromagnetics, Earth Electromagnetics, Gyroscopes, Gyroscopic Effects

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