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On why cold fusion is denied by nuclear theorists
Posted on Friday, October 29, 2021 @ 11:28:33 GMT by vlad

Science WGUGLINSKI writes: Such subject must be considered from two viewpoints:

1- Why nuclear theorists reject the possibility of the existence of cold fusion?

The answer is simple: because from the standard Coulomb’s law F= KQq/d² there is need to consider the existence of the strong nuclear force, so that to explain the stability of atomic nuclei. And from the assumption that strong nuclear force really promotes the stability of atomic nuclei, then theoretically cold fusion is impossible to occur.

But experiments show that cold fusion exists. Then the second question is:

2- How can cold fusion be possible, as by considering the standard Coulomb’s law it is impossible?

The  answer is again simple: because the standard Coulomb’s law is incomplete. Coulomb’s repulsions (and attraction) does not follow the equation F= KQq/d² for distances shorter than Bohr’s radius.


For distances shorter than Bohr’s radius, Coulomb’s law is F= KQq/d^(X+Y), where X decreases with the decrease of the distance between the charges “Q” and “q”, and Y grows with relative speed between the charges.

In my book “Subtle is the Math” the equation F= KQq/d^(X+Y) is proven by calculations, in the first paper of the book, entitled “Relation between QED, Coulomb’s Law and fine-structure constant”.  

And why does Coulomb’s repulsions vary with the parameter Y in the equation F= KQq/d^(X+Y) ?

This happens because, as shown in that paper, the line-forces of the electric fields are composed by particles (captured from the quantum vacuum) that move with the speed of light. The interaction of the fields of two charges Q and q depends on their relative velocity. The faster is their relative velocity, than stronger is the interaction between the particles that compose the fields of the charges Q and q.

Therefore:

1- If two charges Q and q are moving against each other with relativistic speed V, the electric interaction between Q and q varies proportional to V+c, since the particles of the quantum vacuum (that compose the electric fields of Q and q) are moving with velocity “c”.

2- If the charge Q is at rest, and the charge q is moving away the charge Q with relativistic speed V, the electric interaction between Q and q varies proportional to c-V.  This explains why, in the U238 alpha-decay, despite the potential energy of the alpha particle is 27 MeV when it leaves the U238, in the experiments it is detected with only 4 MeV. As shown in my book “Subtle is the Math”, the Gamow’s hypothesis of quantum tunneling is not able to explain this paradox.

In the stars, the relative velocity between particles as protons, deuterons, etc., plays a fundamental role in the process of nuclear synthesis, because the repulsion between two protons moving against each other grows with the growth of their relative speeds, and that’s why, despite the strong nuclear force does not exist, in the stars the fusion between two protons is very hard. Otherwise, if the velocity did not play a fundamental role, the Sun of our planetary system would waste its hydrogen in some few minutes.

Perhaps we may say that such property, of the growth of Coulomb’s repulsions with the growth of the relative velocity between two charged particles, represents a strong force. It is a special type of strong force, with depends on the speed of the two charges.  But it does not exist for two charged particles (with low speed), inside atomic nuclei.

From this new Coulomb’ law there is no need to consider the strong nuclear force.  Several puzzles of nuclear physics are solved by considering that strong force does not exist. For instance, it explains why two neutrons do not form a dineutron, whereas by considering the strong force two neutrons would have to fuse and form a dineutron, since there is not repulsion between them, but they have a strong attraction by the strong nuclear force.  The Heisenberg’s proposal of isospin does not solve the puzzle.

In resume, from a new nuclear physics, in which the strong force does not exist, the cold fusion becomes possible.

Therefore, acceptation of the existence of cold fusion depends on the acceptation that standard Coulomb’s law is incomplete.

This question, as to why nuclear physicists reject cold fusion, is beyond the understanding of most people interested in cold fusion issues. For example, yesterday I submitted an ad here on ZPEnergy, communicating the publication of my book Subtle is the Math, by St Honoré. And Editor Vlad didn't run my ad in "Home" because he mistakenly assumes that my book has nothing to do with the subject of cold fusion. [vlad: it was posted here]

But actually, as my book is proposing new laws for the foundations of physics, its content concerns all fields of physics.

Wladimir_Guglinski





 
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"On why cold fusion is denied by nuclear theorists" | Login/Create an Account | 5 comments | Search Discussion
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Re: On why cold fusion is denied by nuclear theorists (Score: 1)
by vlad on Friday, October 29, 2021 @ 12:06:42 GMT
(User Info | Send a Message) http://www.zpenergy.com
Dr. Guglinski, as you and many of our readers know by now, I have posted all (or the vast majority) of your submissions to ZPEnergy.com, since 2004 when you decided to share some of your theoretical work with us (if you use "Search" tool on "Guglinski" you'll see what I'm talking about).

Nevertheless, as you certainly realize, your work is too theoretical (often too fundamental for the science of physics). Many of our readers did not find it very suitable for this site, a much more "pragmatic" news site in the field of new energy research (with focus on ZPE/vacuum energy). Our mission statement established that limitation from the start (please review it again).

Consequently, I decided to continue to publish your new submissions but, rather than in the home page, they will appear in the comments section of your latest home page post (such as "Latest from W. Guglinski theoretical research"). Patrons of our site will still be exposed to your theoretical work through our "Latest Comments" menu.

Thank you for your understanding Wladimir and best wishes to you.

Vlad



On why Andrea Rossi' cold fusion theory is wrong (Score: 1)
by vlad on Thursday, November 04, 2021 @ 11:18:16 GMT
(User Info | Send a Message) http://www.zpenergy.com
Submitted by WGuglinski: Andrea Rossi wrote the article “E-Cat SK and long-range particle interactions”, in which he proposes the explanation on how takes place the cold fusion in his Ecat:


Rossi's theory is wrong because he uses some current foundations of physics, which are not the true foundations existing in nature, because some fundamental laws are missing in the current theories.

Let us see some of the fundamental principles, existing in nature, that are missing in the current theories.



1- The standard Coloumb law F= KQq/d² is incomplete.

Such subject was already exposed here in ZPEnergy:

The Coulomb law is actually F= KQq/d^(X+Y).
Therefore, it makes no sense to try to explain cold fusion from an incomplete Coulomb's law, because in the short distances inside atomic nuclei the value of "X" is less than 2, and therefore the strong nuclear force does not play the role supposed by the nuclear theorists.



2- The missing of an atomistic structure of electric field in quantum electrodynamics.

In my book Subtle is the Math it is proposed the atomistic structure of the electric fields, as shown in the figure ahead, showing the proton and its electric field.

FIGURE 1
Não foi fornecido texto alternativo para esta imagem

Fermions with electric charges, (that together with other fermions compose the quantum vacuum) move with the speed of light in the proton electric field.

Figure 2 shows the interactions of the fermions of the electric field of a proton A with the fermions of the electric field of a proton B.

As seen in the Figure 2, the fields of the two protons interact through the interaction between the fermions that compose their electric fields.

FIGURE 2

Não foi fornecido texto alternativo para esta imagem

According to quantum electrodynamics, the interaction between two protons takes place through the exchange of photons. Figure 3 illustrates the difference between the mechanism considered in quantum electrodynamics, and the mechanism proposed in my theory.

FIGURE 3

Não foi fornecido texto alternativo para esta imagem


Note that in the System f-f the interaction occurs through two fermions, each one with its spin. But as this mechanism is missing in quantum electrodynamics (QED), the theorists had to replace (what is missing in QED) by a mathematical concept, the bispinor.

The model of electric field of the Figure 2 is proposed in the first paper of the book Subtle is the Math, whose title is "Relation between QED, Coulomb’s Law, and fine-structure constant". In the paper, it is also calculated the value of the electric charge of the fermions of the quantum vacuum, which compose the proton electric field.


Perhaps you would like to claim:

"The main idea of the paper is based on such classical notions like particle's motion and electric current and magnetic field seem to have been given fundamental roles.  This is evident from the figures presented in the paper.  These notions are untenable in the microscopic world where the wave-particle duality is essential even if the author feels "strange" and the gauge field plays an essential role.  They have been supported by experiments for many years.  The paper will not be understood and never be accepted by any other physicists unless the author provides, not a subjective (like the one the author thinks "strange"), but an objective evidence of defect of the standard interpretation, which is missing in the present paper".


Well, this is just what did the Reviewer of the journal European Physical Journal Plus, Dr. Hiromichi Nakazato. He used the argument above for rejecting my paper.

But along the time he was working in the review of my paper, I was working in another paper, and I found the OBJECTIVE EVIDENCE required by Nakazato, as follows: from the value of electric charge of the fermions calculated in my paper, and using my model of electric field, I have calculated the charge of the proton.

The value, calculated in the second paper of the book Subtle is the Math, is e= 1.6026.10^-19 C, very close to the experimental e= 1.60218x10^-19 C.

The paper was also published in Physics Essays, in 2019, with the title "Calculation of proton charges from the electric charges of the fermions of the quantum vacuum":

https://physicsessays.org/browse-journal-2/product/1852-2-wladimir-guglinski-calculation-of-proton-charges-from-the-electric-charges

As conclusion, the success of QED in being the most stringently tested theory in physics is due to a coincidence:  the System ph-ph used in QED is mathematically equivalent to the System f-f existing in the nature, which is considered in my theory.

So, the real mechanism of interaction between fields existing in nature is missing in Rossi's theory.


3- Missing of anisotropic space inside atoms in quantum mechanics

Andrea Rossi uses the Zitterbewegung model of electron in his theory.
But the Zitterbewegung model used up to now is wrong, because in all alternatives of Zitterbewegung models it is missing the anisotropic space inside the atoms.

The Zitterbewegung model existing in nature is proposed in my paper "On the missing anisotropic space inside atoms in quantum mechanics", published in 2021 by Physics Essays (and also in my book Subtle is the Math):


Beyond the advantage that from this new model of atom are eliminated several paradoxes of Quantum Mechanics (as for instance the phantasmagoric property of the electron to disappear from a level and instantanenously to appear in another level, without to travel the space between the two levels), from this New-Zitterbewegung model are calculated successfully the energy levels of the hydrogen atom (also of the helium and lithium atoms).

The calculation, made in a Excel spreadsheet, is so easy that in the book Subtle is the Math the reader is invited to calculate himself the energy levels of the hydrogen atom, as seen here:


In resume, there is no chance Andrea Rossi to develop a satisfactory theory, from a Zitterbewegung-electron model in which is missing the anistropy of space where moves the true Zitterbewegung-electron model existing in nature.



4- Missing of the fundamental law that rules the Zitterbewegung

All the particles move with Zitterbewegung, as photons, mesons, neutrinos, electrons, protons.
And the fundamental law that rules the Zitterbewegung motion of particles is illustrated in the Figure 4:

Não foi fornecido texto alternativo para esta imagem


FIGURE 4

Não foi fornecido texto alternativo para esta imagem



This property of the Zitterbewegung explains, without the paradoxes introduced by Einstein, why Michelson did not succeed to detect the influence of the speed of the Earth in the velocity of the light measured in the experiment, when the photons move toward the direction of the Earth's displacement, and when the photons move in contrary direction of the Earth motion.


Therefore, many of the fundamental laws existing in nature are missing in Rossi's theoretical work. His theory has no chance to be correct.





 

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