Where is quantum vacuum energy coming from? Date: Sunday, November 14, 2021 @ 12:02:21 GMTTopic: Science We see everyday many articles on the internet speaking about the quantum vacuum energy. But were is quantum vacuum energy coming from? Many conjectures are proposed, but no one among them is able to give a reasonable answer for such a mystery, because there is none yet, in the current theoretical physics, an atomistic structure of the electric field of the elementary particles.     First of all, despite there is an infinite quantity of energy in the quantum vacuum, it is not available to us, because energy can be used only when there is a difference of potential applied between two points of the quantum vacuum, and by this way energy can be extracted. In order to understand the indispensable difference of potential able to supply the energy from the quantum vacuum, let us see an example.    Consider lead and sulfur acid. Each one of them alone cannot supply energy. But if you put them inside a box, in a special condition, you have a car battery, with two poles, and between them there is a difference of potential. And if you connect the two poles with wire, then energy will flow along the wire, able to produce work, able to turn on the motor of the car.In the car battery energy is obtained from chemical reactions between elements, as lead and sulfur acid.    And in the case of the quantum vacuum? What sort of mechanism (obviously different of what happens in the case of a car battery) which is able to produce a difference of potential in the quantum vacuum, in order to deliver energy able to produce work?    In my paper “Calculation of proton charges from the electric charges of the fermions of the quantum vacuum”  is calculated the electric charge of the electrically charged particles of the quantum vacuum. The value found is 5.06532 x 10^-45 C.    From this value 5.06532 x 10^-45 C, in the paper is calculated the proton’s electric charge, reaching to the value e = 1.6026 x 10^-19 C, which is very close to the experimental e = 1.60218 x 10^-19 C.The paper was published in 2021 by Physics Essays, and it is also published in my book Subtle is the Math. For the calculation of the proton’s charge, achieving the value e = 1.6026 x 10^-19 C, is used the atomistic structure of the electric field of the proton, shown in the Figure 1, where particles of the quantum vacuum (captured from the soup of the quantum vacuum in which the proton’s body is immersed) move with the speed of light, having a spin (in the Figure 1 the particle is called “electriciton”).    FIGURE 1 An electriciton captured by the proton, moving along one of the line forces of the proton electric field, moves till to the end of the universe, where it goes back to the quantum vacuum. In that instant, when the electriciton goes back to the quantum vacuum, other electriciton is captured by the body of the proton. Figure 2 shows an electriciton B in two positions, one when it is captured by the body of the proton, and the second position when it arrives to the position whose distance to the proton body is equal to the Bohr’s radius.FIGURE 2The electricitons are captured by the body of the proton due to a difference of potential, caused by the rotation of the quarks that compose the structure of the proton.Figure 3 shows the structure of the proton, proposed in the third paper of the book Subtle is the Math. The quarks up and down move with speed close to the speed of light, calculated at the equation 25 at the page 195 of the book. From this velocity of the quarks, and the mass defect caused by their packing inside the structure of the proton, it is calculated the magnetic moment of the proton, achieving the value 2.7815 in the equation 28 at the page 196, whereas the experimental is 2.7928.In the current proton model considered in the Standard Model, the quarks do not move with relativistic speeds, as seen in the Figure 3. So, from current theories of physics there is no way to explain how is possible to get energy from the quantum vacuum, because it is just the relativistic speeds of the quarks that promote the difference of potential, able to extract the electricitons from the quantum vacuum, in order to compose the electric field of the proton. FIGURE 3Therefore, a machine able to extract energy from the quantum vacuum, needs to produce a difference of potential between two poles of the machine. WGuglinski